Monday, February 18, 2013

LANGUAGE AND MORPHOLOGY IN LINGUISTIC


FINAL ASSIGNMENT OF ADVANCED LINGUISTIC
“LANGUAGE AND MORPHOLOGY IN LINGUISTIC”


Lecturer: Dr. Alfan Zuhairi, M.Pd

By:
BUNYANI
(NPM: 2121040015)

English Department of Post Graduate Program
Islamic University of Malang
2013




TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION
A.    Background                                                                         of Study       2
B.     Research Question                                                                                  4
C.     The objective of the Research...........................................................      4

CHAPTER II. DISCUSSION
2.1   Definition Language and Morphology............................................      5
2.1.1            Language............................................................................      5
      2.1.2       Morphology .......................................................................      5
2.2  Processes in Morphology..................................................................      7
2.2.1      Affix...................................................................................     7
2.2.2      Compounding.....................................................................     9
2.2.1      Reduplication......................................................................     10
2.2.1      Alternation..........................................................................     10
2.2.1      Suppletion...........................................................................     11
2.3  Relationship Between Language and Morphology...........................      12

CHAPTER III. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
3.1 Conclusion.........................................................................................    14
3.2 Suggestion ........................................................................................    14

REFFERENCES









CHAPTER    I
INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background of Study

Linguistic has related to the people because it studies about language, it is mean that linguistic focus in language how the language formed, meaning and context. This is study, just focus in structure or grammar of language especially in morphology aspect. “The first subfield of linguistics is the study of language structure, or grammar. This focuses on the system of rules followed by the users of a language. It includes the study of morphology (the formation and composition of words), syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences from these words), and phonology (sound systems)” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistics.
People must understand structure of language and can use it as well as possible; language is needed by people so far they need to interaction with each other. Therefore, we must understand it. People not only understand but also how the way uses a good language to commutate each other. As we see today, communication is very need by all people because first tool of interaction is language. Wedrana Mihalicek et al (2011: 7) said “when you use language, you use it to communicate an idea from your mind to the mind of some else”.
Human life in the world need to interaction with the other people to cover our need. In addition, we cannot life as individual in this world and we must make interaction and communication each other. In their interaction and communication, we must use tool to understand what we want. Language as a toll of communication so if we understand and be able to use it as well as we can interact and communicate with each other but if we do not understand and cannot use it as well as, we cannot interact and communicate with them.
As we know in our interaction, language as tool of communication to express our need like thoughts and feeling and this fact like A.S Hornby (1995: 662) say “language is system of sounds and word used by human to express their thoughts and feeling“. Therefore, we must learn language to understand people’s thoughts and feeling and to understand and use language we must understand the pattern because language has some of pattern to construct it sentence, phrase and word, like how to mike like become dislike. English is one of popular language in this era and English has some of pattern to construct it word, phrase and sentences.
One of pattern in English language about how a word has same meanings because of addition some of Alfa bates in beginning or end of word. This pattern called morphology in English. Morphology in English language has different processes and some of them make new meaning and part of speech.

1.2              Research Question

Based on the background above the writer wont to take the research questions as follow:
  1. What is the definition of Language and Morphology?
  2. How many processes in morphology and what are they?
  3. What is the relationship between language and morphology?

1.3              Objective of the Research

The objectives of this research based on research problem above are:
  1. To know the definition of Language and Morphology
  2. To know the many processes in the Morphology
  3. To know the relationship between Language and Morphology


CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

2.1              Definition of Language and Morphology

2.1.1        Language
Language is a tool of communication of people, in language there are many regulation, like how we make or construct a sentence from phrase and word, so that our language well and the other people understand what we say. If we do not use a good language of structure is wrong or we false use part of speech it also difficult to understand. In addition, language is important aspect in our life.
Language has many functions to express inner thoughts and emotions, make sense of complex and abstract thought, to learn to communicate with others, to fulfill our wants and needs, as well as to establish rules and maintain our culture. http://languagedevelopment.tripod.com/id2.html
            Laurel J. Brinton (2002.2) said “language touches part of our lives: it givens word thoughts, voice to our idea, and express our feelings. It is and varied human ability-one that we can use effortlessly, that children seen to acquire automatically, and that linguists have found to be complex yet systematic and describable. In this book, language will be the object of our study”. This explanation that language is very important for people to study and understand how we use language well.
            We use language because we want to make interaction with the other people and to express idea from our mind to mind of someone else, but language is not one ways to make interaction with people. We can make interaction with them by using picture, honking a horn on a car, screaming, gesture, wordlessly at the top of your lings, or using semaphore flags but language is more essential from those all. Wedrana Mihalicek et al (2011: 7)
            To make a good language people must understand word or part of speech first. People must study word first before phrase and sentences. To make a good ward we must understand morphology.

2.1.2        Morphology
A word Morphology is from Greece “morphe “ that has meaning “forms” . It means the morphology is a science of language that focuses on language and how that language special word   formed. Like we see the world “drive” becomes “driver” in here morphology focuses and concentrate. http://belajarbahasabule.blogspot.com/2010/10/morphology.html
Morphology is study about a word and how the word formed, as if the example above the word “drive” and “er” are called morphemes. Therefore, a process in here is called morphology. Laurel J. Brinton (2002.59-60).
Geert (2005: 7) Said, “In present-day linguistics, the term ‘morphology’ refers to the study of the internal structure of words, and of the systematic form–meaning correspondences between words.” The example above is explains about morphology specially in forming word because it to form new word. Morphology and syntax study how the word construct but morphology study about the word.
The two basic functions of morphological operations are (i) the creation of new words (i.e. new lexemes), and (ii) spelling out the appropriate form of a lexeme in a particular syntactic context.” Krirten (2002:12).
Word in English language some time has different meaning and different part of speech if we add the other word, this called morphology. Morphology is the study of word formation. Therefore, morphology just study and explains how the word formation. In here morphology make new word from basic word or we call as morpheme. http://rezqizone.wordpress.com/2010/11/17/makalah-morphologi-oleh-rezqi-soewarno/
            The other literature of definition of morphology:
“Morphology, the study of the internal structure of words, deals with the forms of lexemes (inflection), and with the ways in which lexemes are formed (word-formation). New words are made on the basis of patterns of form-meaning correspondence between existing words. Paradigmatic relationships between words are therefore essential, and morphology cannot be conceived of as ‘the syntax of morphemes’ or ‘syntax below the word level’. http://www.englishindo.com/2011/02/morphology-pembukaan.html.

This simple way to analyze morphology:

In adjectives

Smaller            2 morphs small/er
Smallest           2 morphs small/est
Better              1 morph better

In verbs

Worked           2 morphs work/ed
Wrote              1 morph wrote
Written            1. Morph written
Working          2 morph work/ing
Put                   1 morph put

In Gerund

Sittings            3 morph sit/ing/s

In Pronouns

We                   1 morph we
Him                 1 morph him
Its                    2 morph it/s

2.2              Processes in Morphology

Morphology is always analyzes a word and how that word formed out of smaller meaningful. Morphology is component of mental grammar and deal with a word too,  it aim that process of morphology by combining one morph with the other, sometime it makes new word, part of speech or meaning, these are five processes. Wedrana Mihalicek et al (2011: 148;149).

2.2.1         Affix
English language only uses prefixes and suffixes. Affix is added in the beginning or end of a word to change the meaning. “An affix is used for both a prefix and suffix which is added to the beginning or end of a word to change the meaning. Add an affix to the beginning and end of the word 'turn' and get on(prefix)re(prefix)turn(root)able(suffix)=nonreturnable...” in this understanding we can conclude that affix divided into two sections first Prefix and Suffix.

2.2.1.1   Prefix
Prefix is a letter or group of letters attached to the beginning of word that party indicates its meaning. For example, the word prefix itself begins with a prefix-pre, with generally means before. Understanding of the common prefixes can help deduce the meaning of new words that we encounter. However, some of prefixes (such as in-) have more than one meaning. Agus mortoyo et al (2012: 3-4)

Prefix
Meaning
Example
a, an
Without
Amoral
Ante
Before
Antecedent
Anti
Against
Anticlimax
Auto
Self
Autopilot
Circum
around
Circumvent
Co
with
Copilot
Com- con
with
Companion, contact
Contra
Against
Contradict
De
Off, away from
Devalue
Dis
Not
Disappear

2.2.1.2   Suffix
Suffix is a letter or a group of letters attached to the end of a word to form a new word or to alter the grammatical function of the original word. For example, the verb read can be made into the noun reader by adding the suffix –er; read can be made into the adjective by adding the suffix – able. Agus mortoyo et al (2012: 3-4)

Suffix
Meaning
Example
-acy
State or quality
Privacy
-al
Act or process of
Refusal
-ance, ence
State or quality of
Maintenance, eminence
-dom
Place or state of being
Freedom, kingdom
-er, -or
One who
Trainer, protector
-ism
Doctrine, belief
Communism
-ist
One who
Chemist
Ity,-ty
Quality of
Veracity
-ment
Condition of
Argument
-ness
State of being
Heaviness
-ship
Position held
Fellowship
-sion, -tion
State of being
Concession, transition
2.2.2         Compounding
Compounding is a process to make word by add two or more independent word or we combine two word like “make” and ”up” become “makeup” . Therefore, those processes become new word and have new meaning, “make” has a meaning “create” and up has meaning “under” or “on” but after we combine “makeup” has a meaning “a cosmetic that used by women”. Wedrana Mihalicek et al (2011: 157;158) said about compounding:
Compounding is a process that forms new words not by means of affixes but form two or more independent word. The words that are the parts of the compound can be free morphemes, words derived by affixation, or even words formed by compounding themselves. Examples in English of those three types are shown.

Compounding of Free Morphemes
Compounding of Affixed Words
Compounding of Compounded Words
Girlfriend
Air-conditioner
Lifeguard chair
Blackbird
Looking-glass
Aircraft carrier
Textbook
Watch-maker
Life-insurance salesman

Notice that in English, compound words are not represented consistently specially in writing. Sometime they are writing together, sometime they are written with a hyphen, and sometime they are written separately.

The other definition of compounding based on Laurel J. Brinton (2002.93-95) the combination of two or more free roots (plus associated affixes). Both phrases (such as kick the bucket, hit the read, sit tight, run the gamut, under the weather) and compounds consist of more than one free rood and may be semantically opaque. However, unlike a phrase, where the free rood and are joined in a single syntactic unit but remain distinct words, a compound is considered a single word.
Kinds of compounds:
1.         Compound Nouns:
Airplane, lipstick, deathblow, figurehead, peppercorn.
2.         Compound Verb
Babysit, carbon,-date, head-hunt, skydive, housekeep
3.         Compound Adjective
Headstrong, childproof, duty-free, lifelong, carsick


2.2.3         Reduplication
            Reduplication is a process of new word by repetition word to make new meaning like in Indonesia “buku” become “buku-buku”. This is one common way in Indonesia and in English to make new meaning or purpose like in English “zig-zag”. Wedrana Mihalicek et al (2011: 157;158) said:
Reduplication is a process of forming new words by doubling either an entire free morphemes (total reduplication) or part of it (partial reduplication) English make no systematic use of reduplication as a part of English’s grammar. There are a very few nonsystematic cases of lexical reduplication, however, such as “bye-bye”. Furthermore, in colloquial speech, we often see reduplication used to indicate intensity; this can happen with verb, adjective and nouns.
Laurel J. Brinton (91-94) said:
Reduplication is a process similar to derivation, in which the initial syllable or the entire word is doubled, exactly or with a slight phonological change. There are three differences kinds of reduplication can be identified.
1.                   Exact reduplication: papa,mama, goody-goody,so-so, hush-hush, never-never.
2.                   Ablaut reduplication in which the vowel alternates while the consonants are identical: criss-cross,zig-zag, ping-pong, tick-tack, flip-flop, mish-mash, wishy-washy, clip-clop, riff-raff: and
3.                   Rhyme reduplication in which the consonants change while the vowel remains the same: helter-skelter, hodge, fuddy, razzle-dazzle, boogie-woogie, nitty-gritty, roly-poly.

2.2.4         Alternation
            Alternation is a process to make new word by modify, morphological distinctions or change in internal morpheme. Vedrana Mihalicek et al (2011: 63:164) “besides adding an affix to a morpheme or copying all or part of the morpheme to make new words or make morphological distinctions, it is also possible to make morpheme internal modifications, called arternations”.
The following is example about it:
In some English, plurals make an internal modification
Man
Men
æ
e (æ)
Alternates with (e) in these forms
Woman
Women
u
i
Alternates with (i) in these forms
Goose
geese
u
i
Alternates with (i) in these forms
Food
Feet
u
i
Alternates with (i) in these forms

In pattern of past and past participle formation
Ring
Rang
Rung
(i)-(æ)-(Λ)
Drink
Drank
Drank

Swim
Swam
Swum

Feet
Fed
Fed
(i)-(æ)-(Λ)
Hold
Held
held
(oʊ)-(ɛ)-(ɛ)

Some verbs show both an alternation and the addition of an affix to one form.
Rood
Alternation
Alternation and Affixation
Break
Broke
Broken
Speak
Spoke
Spoken
Bite
Bit
Bitten
Fall
Fell
Fallen
Give
Gave
Given
           
            Sometime a derivation change part of speech
Nouns
verbs
Strife
Stiaif
Strive
Stiaiv
Teeth
tiө
Teethe
Tiө
Breath
brɛө
Breathe
briө
Use
jus
use
Juz

            Derivation alternation between nouns and verbs
Verbs
Nouns
Limed
‘he taught’
Limut
‘lesson’
Sijem
‘he finished’
Sijum
‘end’
Tijel
‘he traveled’
Tijul
‘trip’
Bikey
‘he visited’
Bikuy
‘visit (noun)’
Dibey
‘he spoke’
Dibuy
‘speech’




2.2.5         Suppletion
            In this section in not common specially in English language to find irregular stems with completely different from the first word to second or last world, this difficult because we must remember. To understand it we must memorize those words. Vedrana Mihalicek et al (2011: 44:45)  
In verb
Go
Went
Gone

In noun (semi-regular)
Food
Feet
Mouse
mice
Louse
Lice
Man
Men
             
In the example above, we analyze based on the part of speech, the other references in suppletion based on, past tense, suffix, comparative, superlative suffix and plural suffix http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsSuppletion.htm
  • The following table illustrates stem suppletion:
Morphological process
Regular, nonsuppletive stem
Suppletive stem
Addition of past tense suffix
walk—walked
go—went
Addition of comparative or superlative suffix
big—bigger— biggest
good—better—best
  • The following table illustrates affix suppletion:
Morphological process
Regular, nonsuppletive affix
Suppletive affix
Addition of plural suffix
cat—cats
cherub—cherubim ox —oxen

 

2.3              Relationship Between Language and Morphology

In this study focus on language and morphology, those all have explained above and we know language is from word after word make a phrase and make a sentences; and morphology is study about word one word called morph therefore, if we make language we must:
1.      Understanding morphology we will be easy to make a good word and will has improvement especially in part of speech in English, because morphology study about internal of word.
2.      Choosing word and combining with the other word by using a good morph, therefore, if we understand morphology will make a good word and make a good part of speech too and language related with word.
3.      If we understand morphology we will understand a basic all words in language, therefore we be able to make part of speech easily.

















CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

3.1 Conclusion
Morphology is one aspect in linguistic specially studies about a word and linguistic studies about language, to make a good language we must study about morphology because morphology is one of basics thing in linguistic. Morphology is very important for every people, because if we understand morphology, we will easy to make new word.
Language is very important for people because language is the best tool to communicate with other people. People can communicate with the other people by using picture, honking a horn on a car, screaming, gesture, wordlessly at the top of your lings, or using semaphore flags
If we understand morphology, we will be easy to make new word.  There are five in morphology such as affixes, compounding, reduplication, alternation and suppletion. All these process has different ways to make new word.

3.2 Suggestion
·         If we want to study linguistic, we must understand the basic one like morphology.
·         Language is tool of communication.
·         We must use a good language so that our communication better and can be understood by the other people.
·         We must understand the five process of morphology to make new word.








Reference

-          Agus mortoyo et al 2012. Actual Bahasa Inggris. Gema Aksara Mnahan Solo
-          Booij, Geert. 2005. The Grammar of Words: An Introduction to Linguistic Morphology. Oxford University Press.
-          Horby, As. 1995. Oxford Adgvanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English Fifth Edition: Oxford Univercity Press.
-          Malmkjaer, Kirsten. 2002. The Linguistics Encyclopedia: 2nd edition. London and New York: Routledge.
-          Laurel J. Brinton.2002. The Structure of Modern English. John Benjamins Publishing Company
-          Wedrana, Mihalicek et al. 2011.Language files, Material for an introduction to Language and Linguistics. Eleventh Edition. The Ohio State University Press






No comments:

Post a Comment